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BULK PARAMETERS

Mass (1024 kg)                                           5.9736

Volume (1010 km3)                                    108.321  

Equatorial radius (km)                                    6378.1    

Polar radius (km)                                        6356.8         

Volumetric mean radius (km)                      6371.0

Core radius (km)                                        3485

Ellipticity (Flattening)                                  0.00335     

Mean density (kg/m3)                                5515     

Surface gravity (m/s2)                                9.798  

Surface acceleration (m/s2)                    9.780       

Escape velocity (km/s)                        11.186

GM (x 106 km3/s2)                              0.3986     

Bond albedo                                         0.306  

Visual geometric albedo                        0.367

Visual magnitude V(1,0)                       -3.86

Solar irradiance (W/m2)                        1367.6    

Black-body temperature (K)                 254.3    

Topographic range (km)                           20

Moment of inertia (I/MR2)                      0.3308

J2 (x 10-6)                                        1082.63     

Number of natural satellites                 1          

Planetary ring system                            No




AIR



9 9 9 ALASKA

9 9 9 CANADA

9 9 9 NORTH AMERICA



9 9 9 MEXICO

9 9 9 CENTRAL AMERICA

9 9 9 SOUTH AMERICA


9 9 9 ANTARCTICA - Atlantis


9 9 9 AFRCA


9 9 9 ASIA


9 9 9 EUROPE


9 9 9 INDIA

9 9 9 PAKISTAN


9 9 9 TIBET

9 9 9 CHINA


9 9 9 POLYNESIA

9 9 9 NEW ZEALAND


9 9 9 MIDDLE EAST

9 9 9 WEST BANK

9 9 9 IRAQ

9 9 9 IRAN

9 9 9 SAUDI ARABIA

9 9 9 DUBAI



WATER



9 9 9 ALASKA

9 9 9 CANADA

9 9 9 NORTH AMERICA



9 9 9 MEXICO

9 9 9 CENTRAL AMERICA

9 9 9 SOUTH AMERICA


9 9 9 ANTARCTICA - Atlantis


9 9 9 AFRCA


9 9 9 ASIA


9 9 9 EUROPE


9 9 9 INDIA

9 9 9 PAKISTAN


9 9 9 TIBET

9 9 9 CHINA


9 9 9 POLYNESIA

9 9 9 NEW ZEALAND


9 9 9 MIDDLE EAST

9 9 9 WEST BANK

9 9 9 IRAQ

9 9 9 IRAN

9 9 9 SAUDI ARABIA

9 9 9 DUBAI



LAND - URBAN AREAS

LAND - FORESTS & WOODLANDS

LAND - PERMANENT PASTURES

LAND - PERMANENT CROPS

LAND - ARABLE

LAND - PROTECTED

LAND - DEVELOPED

LAND - TOXIC

LAND - ENDANGERED

LAND - HABITABLE

ENERGY - SOLAR

ENERGY - WIND

ENERGY - TIDAL

ENERGY - PETROLIUM

ENERGY - GEOTHERMAL

RESOURCES - MINERALS

RESOURCES - FRESH WATER

RESOURCES - FISH

RESOURCES - CATTLE

LAND



9 9 9 ALASKA

9 9 9 CANADA

9 9 9 NORTH AMERICA



9 9 9 MEXICO

9 9 9 CENTRAL AMERICA

9 9 9 SOUTH AMERICA


9 9 9 ANTARCTICA - Atlantis


9 9 9 AFRCA


9 9 9 ASIA


9 9 9 EUROPE


9 9 9 INDIA

9 9 9 PAKISTAN


9 9 9 TIBET

9 9 9 CHINA


9 9 9 POLYNESIA

9 9 9 NEW ZEALAND


9 9 9 MIDDLE EAST

9 9 9 WEST BANK

9 9 9 IRAQ

9 9 9 IRAN

9 9 9 SAUDI ARABIA

9 9 9 DUBAI



HYDROSPHERE


MAGNETOSPHERE


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


INTERNAL STRUCTURE


PLATE TECHTONICS


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


HEAT


SURFACE


ROTATION


ATMOSPHERE


WEATHER & CLIMATE

AIR - OZONE

AIR - POLLUTION PATTERNS

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

CULTURES & COMMUNITIES

BIOSPHERE


WILDLIFE - ENDANGERED

WILDLIFE - MIGRATION

SEARCH

HUMANITY



9 9 9 ALASKA

9 9 9 CANADA

9 9 9 NORTH AMERICA



9 9 9 MEXICO

9 9 9 CENTRAL AMERICA

9 9 9 SOUTH AMERICA


9 9 9 ANTARCTICA - Atlantis


9 9 9 AFRCA


9 9 9 ASIA


9 9 9 EUROPE


9 9 9 INDIA

9 9 9 PAKISTAN


9 9 9 TIBET

9 9 9 CHINA


9 9 9 POLYNESIA

9 9 9 NEW ZEALAND


9 9 9 MIDDLE EAST

9 9 9 WEST BANK

9 9 9 IRAQ

9 9 9 IRAN

9 9 9 SAUDI ARABIA

9 9 9 DUBAI



Oparametersrbital

Semimajor axis (106 km)                        149.60    

Sidereal orbit period (days)                   365.256

Tropical orbit period (days)                   365.242    

Perihelion (106 km)                            147.09       

Aphelion (106 km)                              152.10

Mean orbital velocity (km/s)                    29.78       

Max. orbital velocity (km/s)                    30.29

Min. orbital velocity (km/s)                    29.29

Orbit inclination (deg)                          0.000     

Orbit eccentricity                                    0.0167     

Sidereal rotation period (hrs)                  23.9345    

Length of day (hrs)                             24.0000

Obliquity to orbit (deg)                        23.45     


Earth Mean Orbital Elements (J2000)

Semimajor axis (AU)                            1.00000011  

Orbital eccentricity                                0.01671022  

Orbital inclination (deg)                           0.00005  

Longitude of ascending node (deg)           -11.26064  

Longitude of perihelion (deg)                102.94719  

Mean Longitude (deg)                              100.46435


North Pole of Rotation

Right Ascension:                           0.00 - 0.641T

Declination    :                               90.00 - 0.557T

Reference Date :                               12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)

T = Julian centuries from reference date


Terrestrial Magnetosphere

Dipole field strength:                          0.3076 gauss-Re3

Latitude/Longitude of dipole                N: 78.6 degrees N/70.1 degrees W

Dipole offset (planet center to dipole center) distance: 0.0725 Re

Latitude/Longitude of offset vector:           18.3 degrees N/147.8 degrees E

Note: Re denotes Earth radii,                6,378 km




Terrestrial Atmosphere

Surface pressure:                          1014 mb

Surface density:                               1.217 kg/m3

Scale height:                               8.5 km

Total mass of atmosphere:                 5.1 x 1018 kg

Total mass of hydrosphere:                 1.4 x 1021 kg

Average temperature:                      288 K (15 C)

Diurnal temperature range:                     283 K to 293 K (10 to 20 C)

Wind speeds:                               0 to 100 m/s

Mean molecular weight:                     28.97 g/mole

Atmospheric composition (by volume, dry air):

    Major      :                          78.08% Nitrogen (N2), 20.95% Oxygen (O2),

    Minor (ppm):                     Argon (Ar) - 9340; Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - 380

                                          Neon (Ne) - 18.18; Helium (He) - 5.24; CH4 - 1.7

                                          Krypton (Kr) - 1.14; Hydrogen (H2) - 0.55

    Numbers do not add up to exactly 100% due to roundoff and uncertainty

    Water is highly variable, typically makes up about 1%